Thursday, February 20, 2020

The Use of Isotopes in Medicine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Use of Isotopes in Medicine - Essay Example These are the radioactive and stable isotopes. Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 444) define radioactive isotopes as those whose nucleus is unstable. Because of this, radioactive isotopes have a tendency for spontaneous decomposition, a reaction which involves the release of radiation. During the decomposition of a radioactive isotope, a helium nucleus is released, a process which leads to the stabilization of the isotope. On the other hand, a stable isotope does not have a tendency for spontaneous decomposition and as a result, these isotopes resist various forms of chemical alterations. Radioactive have been used widely used in medicine as agents of diagnostic processes. This essay gives a critical analysis ad discussion of the various uses or applications of isotopes in the field of medicine. Many chemical elements contain isotopes. Radioisotopes are often products of artificial combination of protons and neutrons. Artificial production of radioisotopes often employs protons and neut rons which do not exist in nature (Ruth, 2009, p. 536). There are a total of 1800 radioisotopes including those which arise from the decay of thorium and uranium in their primordial states. There are a variety of ways in which radioisotopes can be produced or manufactured artificially. These include neutron activation which is the commonest way of producing radioisotopes. This is done within a nuclear reactor. In addition, some radioisotopes are produced within a cyclotron in which deficiency of neutrons within a nucleus is achieved through artificial introduction of protons (Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 445). The artificial manufacture of radioisotopes is aimed at meeting their application in medicine. The radioisotopes used in medicine are known as radiopharmaceuticals. The following section describes three major applications of radioisotopes in medicines with the justification on why specific radioisotopes are used in the management of various medical processes. The disadvantag es associate with the use of isotopes is also provided later in the essay. According to Ruth (2009, p. 537), isotopes are used in nuclear medicine to provide diagnostic information which is used by physicians to diagnose various medical conditions. This is achieved through the imaging of organs such as bones, thyroid gland, liver and heart to determine their functioning. Prvulovich and Bomanji (1998, p. 1140) demonstrates 90% of the application of isotopes in medicine if for diagnostic procedures. Technetium-99 is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical diagnosis. Ramamoorthy and Binukumar (2010, p. 46) say that technetium-99 is used widely as a radioactive tracer. This isotope is commonly used because it is detectable within the body through the use of specialized medical equipment such as gamma cameras. Technetium-99 is releases gamma rays and this explains why gamma cameras are able to detect it within the body. More importantly, technetium-99 is relatively safer in diagn osis as compared to other isotopes. This is due to the fact that it its physical and biological half-life is short. As a result, it decays within 24 hours of exposure to the body. This provides sufficient time for the quick detection of chemical equipment while it keeps the exposure of the patient to the radiation as low as possible (Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 446). This demonstrates why this isotope is commonly applied in medical diagnosis. Prvulovich and Bomanji (1998, p. 1143) explain that isotopes are also commonly used in therapy.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Company Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Company Law - Essay Example Thus the shareholder in a proprietorship company is an individual, the partnership depending upon the number of persons who constitute the partnership and private company (corporation) the number of shareholders who promote and subscribe to the shareholding of that organization. By its nature, conducts of a business obligates its owners to discharge their liabilities to the creditors in the process of running and earning income out of business operations. The degree of responsibilities and viability vary due to the risks involved in accessing capital. Stated otherwise, in certain types of businesses informal rule applies whereas in others informal ones apply but the ultimate objective of all them is to ‘effectively constrain agents (the form of companies here) actions and their growth (North, 1990). The interdependence between the legal and financial rules have further be amplified, for instance, by Cheffins, (2001) and Coffee, (2001) according to whom while the good quality le gal rules could enhance the investments potential for businesses, financial structures can influence the creations of legal norms. In this light, the objectives of this paper is to discuss specific structures under which businesses operate, viz, Sole proprietorship, limited liability, the pros and cons of both the structures and the later in relation to ‘Solomon Case’. This paper would also be finally enlarged with a discussion of limited liability as to how it impacts a company’s directors and shareholders. Discussion An Overview of the UK Corporate Sector The corporate structure of the UK business enterprises is influenced by a number of factors, such as access to bank borrowing, cash, non-debt tax shields, growth opportunities, profitability etc. Business structures are platforms through which capital, goods and persons carry out commercial transactions in a given space wherein the accessibility to capital and size have a distinct impact on the nature of the c orporate forms in which such transactions are facilitated. While one can state that there are three broad choices, via, (i) sole proprietorships, (ii) partnerships (limited liability), (iii) corporations (private or public) for organizing and running of business enterprises. There are various other types of companies such as royal charter, industrial and provident society, company limited by guarantee, community interest company, etc. But proprietorship, partnerships and corporations are the three main types prevalent. Proprietorship Proprietorship businesses are characterized by single owners, at times a one person shows with limited or even the owner performing the role of an employee also. In such a case it acquires the form of self-employment whom for such a reason cannot be classified as real entrepreneurs. Proprietorship entities have certain advantages which makes it a most popular form of business enterprise. Some of such advantages are: a) It facilitates an easy formation b ecause neither is there a need for complying with legal formalities nor any registration of the firm is needed; b) the owner comes up with the requisite capital which ordinarily gets generated either out of their savings and or through the reinvestment of profits generated; c) The owner has total control of the business operations which enables the