Saturday, March 7, 2020

Syphilis In Measure For Measure Essays - Syphilis, Free Essays

Syphilis In Measure For Measure Essays - Syphilis, Free Essays Syphilis In Measure For Measure Syphilis in Renaissance Europe and in Shakespeares Measure for Measure Bibliography to venereal disease appear as early in the second scene of Shakespeares Measure for Measure. Syphilis, the primary and most horrible of venereal diseases, ran rampant in Shakespeares time. By giving a brief history of the disease in Renaissance Europe one can gain a better understanding of the disease which will provide a greater insight into the play which would have gone unknown. This brief history will include, the severity of the disease in fifteenth and sixteenth century Europe, believed origins and symptoms of the time period, and methods of curing or combating the disease.. By reading and analyzing passages referring to syphilis in Measure for Measure it is clear that Shakespeare himself believed in most of the truths established by the poet and physician Fracastor. Fracastor was the primary source and influence regarding studies of syphilis in Renaissance Europe. The disease we now commonly identify as syphilis is believed to have arrived in Europe for the first time in the late fifteenth century. Though there are few statistics from that period available to prove such an argument, there is plenty of evidence that supports that the disease suddenly emerged in great abundance during this time period. It is also believed that syphilis was much more severe then, than it has ever been since. Zinsser writes in his book, Rats, Lice, and History that: There is little doubt that when syphilis first appeared in epidemic form, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, it was a far more virulent, acute, and factual condition than it is now (Rosebury 23). The first time syphilis, called evil pocks at the time, was mentioned in print occurred on August 7, 1495 in the Edict of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. In this document syphilis was believed to be a punishment sent from God for blasphemy and was described as something which had never occurred before nor been heard of within the memory of man (Rosebury 24). Between the years 1495 and 1498 there were a total of nine similar documents that emerged through out Western Europe. In 1530 Fracastor, a poet and physician, published the poem, Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus, translated Syphilis or the French Disease. The main character was a shepherd in Hispaniola named Syphilis. Syphilis caught the disease for disrespecting the Gods. At the time Fracastor believed in the previous documents, but would provide his own original ideas concerning how the disease reached Europe. He also alluded to possible treatments, that Shakespeare will later use in his plays. Fracastor used the name syphilis for both the main character and the disease he contracted. However, the name of the disease continued to be known as the French disease. It was not until the 1850s, more than three centuries after Fracastors poem, that the disease was called syphilis. Fracastors poem grew widely popular in Western Europe, and was believed to be mostly factual at the time. It might seem odd that a fictional poem with fictional characters would be widely regarded as truth, but under the extreme circumstances of the sixteenth century syphilis epidemic it makes perfect sense. Syphilis had caused terror in the hearts of the people in the sixteenth century due to its rapid spread. Physicians seemed helpless to cure it. No one could do anything, but believe in what Fracastor wrote. In the poem Fracastor had answers concerning its origin, symptoms, and cure for this new disease. He went along with the common belief that it appeared in the French army before Naples around the year 1495. From France, and justly took from France his name, (Rosebury 31). This quote provides the evidence concerning syphilis former name, The French Disease. He also discussed how he believed that it originated in America, and was brought back with Columbus and his men. This was the popular view of the day, and many researchers still find truth in it. What Fracastor truly believed, at the time, was that the positions of the planets influenced the outbreak of the disease. He believed that they lined up in such a way that provided great conditions for the emergence of the disease. In the poem Fracastor also

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The Use of Isotopes in Medicine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Use of Isotopes in Medicine - Essay Example These are the radioactive and stable isotopes. Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 444) define radioactive isotopes as those whose nucleus is unstable. Because of this, radioactive isotopes have a tendency for spontaneous decomposition, a reaction which involves the release of radiation. During the decomposition of a radioactive isotope, a helium nucleus is released, a process which leads to the stabilization of the isotope. On the other hand, a stable isotope does not have a tendency for spontaneous decomposition and as a result, these isotopes resist various forms of chemical alterations. Radioactive have been used widely used in medicine as agents of diagnostic processes. This essay gives a critical analysis ad discussion of the various uses or applications of isotopes in the field of medicine. Many chemical elements contain isotopes. Radioisotopes are often products of artificial combination of protons and neutrons. Artificial production of radioisotopes often employs protons and neut rons which do not exist in nature (Ruth, 2009, p. 536). There are a total of 1800 radioisotopes including those which arise from the decay of thorium and uranium in their primordial states. There are a variety of ways in which radioisotopes can be produced or manufactured artificially. These include neutron activation which is the commonest way of producing radioisotopes. This is done within a nuclear reactor. In addition, some radioisotopes are produced within a cyclotron in which deficiency of neutrons within a nucleus is achieved through artificial introduction of protons (Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 445). The artificial manufacture of radioisotopes is aimed at meeting their application in medicine. The radioisotopes used in medicine are known as radiopharmaceuticals. The following section describes three major applications of radioisotopes in medicines with the justification on why specific radioisotopes are used in the management of various medical processes. The disadvantag es associate with the use of isotopes is also provided later in the essay. According to Ruth (2009, p. 537), isotopes are used in nuclear medicine to provide diagnostic information which is used by physicians to diagnose various medical conditions. This is achieved through the imaging of organs such as bones, thyroid gland, liver and heart to determine their functioning. Prvulovich and Bomanji (1998, p. 1140) demonstrates 90% of the application of isotopes in medicine if for diagnostic procedures. Technetium-99 is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical diagnosis. Ramamoorthy and Binukumar (2010, p. 46) say that technetium-99 is used widely as a radioactive tracer. This isotope is commonly used because it is detectable within the body through the use of specialized medical equipment such as gamma cameras. Technetium-99 is releases gamma rays and this explains why gamma cameras are able to detect it within the body. More importantly, technetium-99 is relatively safer in diagn osis as compared to other isotopes. This is due to the fact that it its physical and biological half-life is short. As a result, it decays within 24 hours of exposure to the body. This provides sufficient time for the quick detection of chemical equipment while it keeps the exposure of the patient to the radiation as low as possible (Bodamer and Halliday (2001, p. 446). This demonstrates why this isotope is commonly applied in medical diagnosis. Prvulovich and Bomanji (1998, p. 1143) explain that isotopes are also commonly used in therapy.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Company Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Company Law - Essay Example Thus the shareholder in a proprietorship company is an individual, the partnership depending upon the number of persons who constitute the partnership and private company (corporation) the number of shareholders who promote and subscribe to the shareholding of that organization. By its nature, conducts of a business obligates its owners to discharge their liabilities to the creditors in the process of running and earning income out of business operations. The degree of responsibilities and viability vary due to the risks involved in accessing capital. Stated otherwise, in certain types of businesses informal rule applies whereas in others informal ones apply but the ultimate objective of all them is to ‘effectively constrain agents (the form of companies here) actions and their growth (North, 1990). The interdependence between the legal and financial rules have further be amplified, for instance, by Cheffins, (2001) and Coffee, (2001) according to whom while the good quality le gal rules could enhance the investments potential for businesses, financial structures can influence the creations of legal norms. In this light, the objectives of this paper is to discuss specific structures under which businesses operate, viz, Sole proprietorship, limited liability, the pros and cons of both the structures and the later in relation to ‘Solomon Case’. This paper would also be finally enlarged with a discussion of limited liability as to how it impacts a company’s directors and shareholders. Discussion An Overview of the UK Corporate Sector The corporate structure of the UK business enterprises is influenced by a number of factors, such as access to bank borrowing, cash, non-debt tax shields, growth opportunities, profitability etc. Business structures are platforms through which capital, goods and persons carry out commercial transactions in a given space wherein the accessibility to capital and size have a distinct impact on the nature of the c orporate forms in which such transactions are facilitated. While one can state that there are three broad choices, via, (i) sole proprietorships, (ii) partnerships (limited liability), (iii) corporations (private or public) for organizing and running of business enterprises. There are various other types of companies such as royal charter, industrial and provident society, company limited by guarantee, community interest company, etc. But proprietorship, partnerships and corporations are the three main types prevalent. Proprietorship Proprietorship businesses are characterized by single owners, at times a one person shows with limited or even the owner performing the role of an employee also. In such a case it acquires the form of self-employment whom for such a reason cannot be classified as real entrepreneurs. Proprietorship entities have certain advantages which makes it a most popular form of business enterprise. Some of such advantages are: a) It facilitates an easy formation b ecause neither is there a need for complying with legal formalities nor any registration of the firm is needed; b) the owner comes up with the requisite capital which ordinarily gets generated either out of their savings and or through the reinvestment of profits generated; c) The owner has total control of the business operations which enables the

Monday, January 27, 2020

How Photography And Photojournalism Has Been Transformed Media Essay

How Photography And Photojournalism Has Been Transformed Media Essay Visual culture and its relationship with photographic image have developed alongside technology, production and culture. Over the last decade digital technology has changed the way in which we percieve the photographic image and transform its ability to report and produce the knowledge of representation. Digital images differ from analog photographic images in ways that affect how they look, the ways in which they are generated, stored and disturted, and the types of technical devices (digital cameras, mobile phones, computers, ipods, websites, etc.) on which they can be created and displayed.Yet there are many similar ways in which digital images are used as analog photographic images were; as forms of personal expression, for family albums, and as documentary evidence. Although, analog cameras produce images that must be processed and developed, digital cameras allow the photographer to see the image on the camera immediately after the take, allowing even more instantaneous pleasur e. The most widely discussed difference between conventional and digital photography concerns what happens after the take and before the print is produced. Digital technology has transformed photography, allowing anyone with a digital camera, a computer, and a cable to download images not only to print them out as they are but also to copy them into programs in which they can be edited, enhanced, corrected and manipulated to alter composition, colour, framing and combinations of elements and scenes. In digital programs such as Adobe Photoshop, it is easy to be creative as its digitally techniques have made it possible to build on this ability to artifically construct realism. Until the 1990s tools for the manipulation of the analog photograph remained restricted to the commercial and fine art photographer. Commercial photographers often used airbrushing and other professional techniques to tidy up, modify and combined their photographs. Today, these techniques are now common practice, to have personal photographs digitally reconfigured, to remove relatives out of birthday pictures, for instance or to erase ex- best friends or boyfriends from treasued images. In many cases, this kind of playing with the historical record is realively harmless. By the end of the 20th century, digital imaging and processing and computer- based techniques had made it possible to manipulate images in many ways, creating revolutionary changes in photography. What changed with digital photographs is not the ability to manipulate the image but the wide availabily and accsessibility of these techniques to the consumer, making not just image production but also image reproduction and alteration an everyday aspect of consumer experience. The way in which images are displayed has also changed. Before collecting your prints at a parmacy may have included a duplicate set to give to a family member that could be cherished along with the original in the family album. Now the album exisits in the form of muliple duplicate disks that can be sent to family member worldwide via e-mail, all of them of equal quality. They can also be accessed through websites set up privately thus the family photo album has moved online making it much more accessible to the public than ever before. What the purpose of a photograph use to be convey realsim, proof and evidence. Throughout its history, photography has been asscoiated with realism and truth. (talk a little bit about evidence and proof). As critic Marita Sturken notes, a photograph is often percieved to be an unmediated copy of the real world, a trace of reality skimmed off the very surface of life, and evidence of the real, (Practices of looking an introduction to visual culture) however this no longer seems to be the case. As Geoffrey Bathen argues that although all forms of photography involve intervention and some manipulation, digitalization abandons even the rhetoric of truth that has been such an important part of photographys cultural success. However, Bathen also argues that digitalization loses credibility because it strips an image of its indexicality. There can be no guarantee that the digital image existed in a real time and space. () Peirces concept of the indexical quality of signs suggests a way to understand the changes taking place with digital technology. As already noted, the power of the anolg photograph is derived largely from its indexical qualities. The camera has coexisted in physical space with the real that it has photographed. Many digital images and all simulations lack this indexical relationship to what they represent. For example, an image generated exclusively by computer graphics software can be made to appear to be a photograph of actual objects, places or people, when in fact it is a simulation, that is that it does not represent something in the real world. The difference resides in the fact that the process of producing a digital image does not require that the subject (the object, person or space) is present or that the subject even exisits. Digital simulations of photographs imitate photographs of real occurence. For instance, an image in which people are digitally inserted into a landsc ape where they have never been does not refer to something that has been. While the acknowledged manipulation of photographs has always been a cause of concern for some, theses worries appear to have increased dramatically with the advent of digital techniques. This Technology has undermined the nature and meaning of images as representation. Images and photography is now more than ever open to non-detectable transformation and manipulation. What was once trusted as reality can now be altered and edited. The activity of photography together with digital technology is transforming our contemporary visual culture. This raises the question of what happens to the idea of photographic truth when an image looks like a photograph but has in fact been created on a computer with no camera at all. In Peirces terms, this marks a fundemental shift in meaning from the photograph to the digital image, as we take these computer generated images to resemble real life subjects. While the knowledged manipulation of photographs has always been a cause of concerm for some, these worries appear to have increased dramatically with the advent of digital techniques. Frequently, these worries centre on issues of truth and reality. For example a century and a half ago photographs relieved paintings of the burden of recording reality; now in turn, computers have weakened photographys claim on depicting the real world. For all of computers extraordinary precision, their impact in news photography has been to obscure the boundaries of fact and fiction, in other words, to blur. (Leslie 1995;113) Questions of the verifiability and manipulation of images takes on a particular importance in the context of photojournalism and documentary photography. There are very high stakes in the news industry in certain ethical codes of truth telling. These include, the idea that photographic news images are realistic and unmanipulated. In other words, as viewers we assume that the photographs that are presented in the mainstream newspapers and news journals are unaltered. When a photograph is introduced as documentary evidence, it is often presented as if it were incontrovertible proof that an event took place in a particular way and in a particular place. As such, it is percieved to speak the truth in a direct way. (talk about the credibility decreasing at least 50 words) Discovery that a news orginzation has altered an image can spark scandal and debate, such as the debate over Time magazines cover of O.J Simpson when he was arrested and charged with murder. Time magazine heightened the contrast and darkened the skin tone of the O.J mug shot to create a more sinster look. Time followed the historical convention of using darker skin tones to connote evil and to imply guilt. However Time magazines argued that the cover was not manipulated, but rather illustrated. () It is here where images that have been altetered or reranged to generate a certain meaning and to ultimately persuade a particular point of view and an emotional response, where the lines between fact and fiction become blurred. (talk abit how views how images like this anger the public as it tricks them because most manipulations remain indected and how because of this these images are eroding the publics trust and the media credibility) talk a little bit about/ how because of technology w e as views can detect obvious forms of manipulation however The trust in the image as a representation of reality has been degraded part because of the overload of images in the world around us but also with a greater and more widespread knowledge about the image as something produced in contrast to a reflection. However, despite this most critics agree that photography is accepted by the public as believeable, People believe photographs, Coleman wrote in 1976 (Coleman, The directorial mode: Notes Toward a definition, in Light Readings, p248. and Andy Grundberg reiterated the point that photography is the most stylistically transparent of the visual arts, able to represent things in convincing persepective and seamless detail. Never, mind that advertising has taught us that photographic images can be marvelous tricksters: what we see in a photograph is often mistaken for the real thing. (Andy Grunberg, blaming a medium for its message, New York Times, Arts and Leisure section, Au gust 6, 1989, P1. No matter how much manipulation went into the taking or development of a picture, the viewer feels assured that the photograph documents truth. In how to do things with pictures, William Mitchell, says that the fact that what is represented on paper undeeniably existed, if only for a moment, is the ultimate source of the mediumss extraordinary powers of persuasion. Does this mean phptpgraphic truth is at an end? One notion/ arguement is to suggest that photography as we know it (active witness) has changed as a result to digitalization, so much so that truth within photography is becoming non-exsitent. Critic Nicholas Mirzoeff, goes as far as to say Photography met its own death some time in the 1980s at the hands of computer imaging. Although, another arguement is to suggest it never exsited to begin with. Many people think the manipulation of images started with the invention of Photoshop, however photography has always been altered, long before the digital age, in the sense that the creation of an image through a camera lens has always involved some degree of subjective choice through selection, framing (what to include and what to reject) and personalization. Some types of image recording seems to take place without human invention. In surveillance videos, for instance, no one stands behind the lens to determine what and how any particular event should be shot. Yet even in surveillance video, someone has programmed the camera to record a particular part of space and to frame that space in a particular way. (and what one persons reality is, another might not be) Another is to suggest that digital technology has imerged photography into an art form, as digital images are being cropped and adjusted on a daily basis to create more aesthically pleasing images, streering away from the contentional appearance of optical reality, thus making it an expressive piece of fiction rather than historical evidence. As Susan Sontag states in her 1977 book, On Photography, the photographer is not simply the person who records the past, but the one who invents it. Spanish Photographer and critic Joan Fontcuberta alsoo noted that because the computer has become a sophisticated technological prothesis we cannot do without. This also suggest that because digital technology has become so accessible and easy to use, editing images has become second nature, that is to say it is essental to correct images once that have been uploaded, in order to percieve the perfection that photographers and amauture photographers desire. Altough it has been estabishlished that computers can compile data and create pictures that mimic the appearance of the world without capturing any visual information from optical reality, such as films and computer games. Most digitally modified pictures are processed in oder to make them look more real and thereby conveys a sense of truth. we cant do without digital imaging- small touch ups like cropping and adjust light and colours could generate new meaning to the image, thus making it an expressive piece of fiction rather than historical evidence. Conclusion 400 words There are numerous examples of controversies over the manipulation of images to produce more aestheically pleasing documentary images. For instance (Opera Winfery) By exploiting the use of digital manipulation tools, journalists are abusing their power as representors of truth. Altough manipulation is not rare to digital imaging, it could be argued that but the technology makes composing easier to do and harder to detect thus creating a blur In the context of of digital imaging, with its increased capacity to change images in seamless and realistic ways, can the idea of photographs as unmanipulated evidence survive? Bathen theorizes that the perceived manipulability of digital photography will upset photographyà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s association with objectivity. For the first time, the issue of a à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"fake,à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ã‚  a non-authentic, photograph is discussed. Regardless of what viewers think about the nature of photography, most critics agree that photography is accepted by the public as believeable, People believe photographs, Coleman wrote in 1976 (Coleman, The directorial mode: Notes Toward a definition, in Light Readings, p248. and Andy Grundberg reiterated the point that photography is the most stylistically transparent of the visual arts, able to represent things in convincing persepective and seamless detail. Never, mind that advertising has taught us that photographic images can be marvelous tricksters: what we see in a photograph is often mistaken for the real thing. (Andy Grunberg, blaming a medium for its message, New York Times, Arts and Leisure section, August 6, 1989, P1. No matter how much manipulation went into the taking or development of the a picture, the viewer feels assured that the photograph documents truth. In how to do things with pictures, William Mitchell, says that the fact that what is represented on paper undeeniably existed, if only for a moment, is the ultimate source of the mediumss extraordinary powers of persuasion. With most media related images being manipulated, to ultimately persuade the viewers to a particular point of view. The audience is generally unaware of the alterations, creating a blurring of the truth. The debate has brought forward larger questions about the notions of objectivity that are attached to images published in journalistic contexts. Manipulation techniques have continued to proliferate and are now the norm in digital photography, chipping away at the photographic conventions that previously were associated with truth in photojournalism. The trust in the image as a representation of reality has been degraded part because of the overload of images in the world around us but also with a greater and more widespread knowledge about the image as something produced in contrast to a reflection With easy to use tools that can immediately alter images to create a manipulated copy, causing truth to become a manufactured entity. With most media related images being manipulated, to ultimately persuade the viewers to a particular point of view. The audience is generally unaware of the alterations, creating a blurring of the truth. No matter how much manipulation went into the taking or development of the a picture, the viewer feels assured that the photograph documents truth. In how to do things with pictures, William Mitchell, says that the fact that what is represented on paper undeeniably existed, if only for a moment, is the ultimate source of the mediumss extraordinary powers of persuasion. one assumption is to consider that reality in the photo imagery is becoming non-exisitent, with most media related images being manipulated, to ultimately persuade the viewers to a particular point of view. The audience is generally unaware of the alterations, creating a blurring of the truth. the arguement made by critic Nicholas Mirzoeff that is that Photography met its own death some time in the 1980s at the hands of computer imaging. Death of photography and what it once stood for. This raises the question of what happens to the idea of photographic truth when an image looks like a photograph but has in fact been created on a computer with no camera at all. Many people think the manipulation of images started with the invention of Photoshop, however photography has always been altered, long before the digital age, in the sense that the creation of an image through a camera lens has always involved some degree of subjective choice through selection, framing and personalization. Some types of image recording seems to take place without human invention. In surveillance videos, for instance, no one stands behind the lens to determine what and how any particular event should be shot. Yet even in surveillance video, someone has programmed the camera to record a particular part of space and to frame that space in a particular way. How digital technology has become apart of our everyday lives- how we can not do without it As Spanish photographer and critic Joan Fontcuberta noted the computer has become a sophisticated technological prosthesis we can not do without. How images today have become more asthetically pleasing rather than historical evidence or proof With photographers interpreting what it is they see in a myriad of ways, by making simple asthetic choices such as a camera lens always involves some degree of subjective choice through selection, framing and personalisation. by making simple asthetic choices such as .. focal, lens objectivity even with survillance cameras every image is manipulated to some extent. Manipultaion is not rare to digital imaging, but the technology makes composing easier to do and harder to detect. Since the dramatic growth of communications since the 1990s, technologies such as satellites, the internet and virtual reality seen photographs and images seamlessly modified to produce new and morally questionable representations. Widespread use of digital imaging techologies since the 1990s has dramatically altered the status of the photograph relative to truth claims, While the knowledged manipulation of photographs has always been a cause of concerm for some, these worries appear to have increased dramatically with the advent of digital techniques. Frequently, these worries centre on issues of truth and reality. For example a century and a half ago photographs relieved paintings of the burden of recording reality; now in turn, computers have weakened photographys claim on depicting the real world. For all of computers extraordinary precision, their impact in news photography has been to obscure the boundaries of fact and fiction, in other words, to blur. (Leslie 1995;113) (insert footnote) So does this mean photographic truth is at an end? or did it ever exisit? (main body of text- argue) With the increase of digital technology used to retouch and clean up images on a daily basis it could be considered that photographs no longer represent a window of reality or documentary evidence but are instead decorative piece of fantasy and fiction. Conclusion What changed with the digital photograph is not the ability to manipulate the image but the wide availability and accessibility of these techniques to the consumer, making not just image production but also image reproduction and alteration an everyday aspect of consumer experience. The capacity for manipulation and multiple contextualization is not new, of course, with the digital photograph. It has always been possible to fake realism in photographs. Photographic prints and negatives have been physically altered since the beginning of photography. At time this has been for aesthetic effect, or for political or social reasons. While some early photographic manipulation had the aim of enhancing the seeming truthlikeness of the image, other examples appear purely decorative. For years, photographers have retouched both negatives and prints in darkrooms, removing speckles and dust or hiding blemishes on the faces of subjects. Points and arguements The possiblilties of digital imaging are endless, for example, the unique and cherished old photograph of our great grandfather at age five, fading and crumbling in the family album, becomes a bit less difficult to lose when it hasw been preserved in a copy that will not erode over time and will not decrease the quality with copying as a photographic original would. While the acknowledged manipulation of photographs has been a cause of concern for some, these worries appear to have increased dramatically with the advent of digital techniques. Frequently, these worries centre on issues of truth and reality. For instance a century and a half ago photographs relieved paintings of the burden of recording reality; now, in turn, computers have weakened photographs claim on depicting the real world. For all of computers extraordinary precision , their impact in news photography has been to obscure the boundaries of fact and fiction. In other words, to blur. (Leslie:1995;113) Most critics agree that photography is accepted by the public as believeable. People believe photographs, Coleman wrote in 1976 (Coleman, The directorial mode: Notes Toward a definition, in Light Readings, p248. and Andy Grundberg reiterated the piont that photography is the most stylistically transparent of the visual arts, able to represent things in convincing persepective and seamless detail. Never, mind that advertising has taught us that photographic images can be marvelous tricksters: what we see in a photograph is often mistaken for the real thing. (Andy Grunberg, blaming a medium for its message, New York Times, Arts and Leisure section, August 6, 1989, P1. People have inhertited a cultural tendency to see through the photograph to what is photographed and to forget that the photograph is an artifact, made by a human. Photographers are well aware of the aura of credibility the photograph has that other media representations do not share. Jacob Riss and Lewis Hine, for example, wrote and made photographs in the cause of social refoem and knowingly used the medium of photography to give their writing more credibility. Hine stated, the average person believes implicitly that the photograph cannot falsify, but he was quick to add, you and I know that while photographs may not lie, liars may photograph. (Lewis Hine, Social photography , How the Camera May in the Social Uplift, in Classic Essays, P 111. FIT THIS IN SOMEWHERE USE THIS!!! Critic Nicholas Mirzoeff declared that photography met its own death some time in the 1980 at the hands of computer imaging. ()8 Likewise, Williams J. Mitchell too backed Mirzeff claim by announcing that from this moment on, photography is dead or more precisely, radically and permanently redefined as was painting one hundred and fifty years before. ()9 Spanish photographer and critic Joan Fonctcuberta also noted that, because the computer has become a sophisticated technological prosthesis we cannot do without. Moreover, all photography has been altered in the sense that the camera frames and focuses on a chosen subject, thus eliminating other topics. (talk about objectivity here and how every image is altered beacuse of this even surviallance) Photographs are treated as active witnesses

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Life For Young People Essay

Life for young people in sg was better in the past than it is today (OV) Life was less stressful and moved at a slower pace in the past. There was less competitiveness in the society then. Students have packed schedules of tuition, school, and enrichment classes, to the extent that they have little time left to enjoy other activities. Higher stress is linked with not only physical but also psychological ailments like depression, hence the incidences of young people committing suicide due to inability to cope with studies, relationships etc. In the past, education was a simple process, there was no streaming, ranking of schools, or other initiatives which would apparently increase the level of stress in students. The burden of university loans and proportion of income that has to be spent on necessities have become more oppressive than ever It is increasingly challenging to make decisions and commit to them as young people are inundated with the pressures of adult life, the access to a variety of opportunities lead to increasing uncertainty about the future. Yet, it is an undeniable fact that the youths today not worse off in any aspect than those in the past. One common argument is that youths today are under much more pressure to succeed due to parental pressure as well as pressure from social media. As such, many youths today are studying, day in day out, â€Å"mugging†, as they affectionately termed, evident from the fact that Singapore’s tuition industry is one of the world’s most lucrative. They have little or no free time for themselves, resulting in low quality of life as their recreational and spiritual needs are not met. Unlike the carefree days in the past, when times were simpler and there was no need to live up to expectations of self and others. Hence, I concede to Singaporean youths having it worse than those in the past due to pressures to do well. Young people today have unprecedented access to knowledge and information. The Internet has provided a plethora of information across almost all of areas of knowledge, making informed decisions more accessible. Education standards have improved greatly to the extent of recognition by the United States, a global power, for its teaching methods, especially in the field of mathematics. With effective and up-to-date teaching materials and methods, the Ministry of Education (MOE) ensures that the education system produces skilled and competent youths who are able to actively participate in the society and the economy. This is evident from Singapore’s Gross Domestic  Product (GDP) growth of 5.5% in 2011, which has been sustained since 2005. Many educational initiatives were introduced to empower the young in this modern age. (EG IT master plan). Edusave accounts and subsidies are given to allow more students to take up enrichment courses. With economic growth, the youth are able to enjoy better amenities and higher standard of living due to the surplus in the nation’s earnings. High education standards also allow better opportunities to undertake well-paid jobs because Singapore’s education system does not only emphasise on knowledge accquisation, but also the development of the twenty-first century skills, increasing the competitiveness of the youth in Singapore. As such, the youth in Singapore are better able to compete in the global market and are able to enjoy high standards of living, much higher than those in the past. Some say that the working environment was less competitive and job requirements were less demanding. While I will not deny that though jobs are more specialised today, people will need to be able to multi-task in order to stand out among the rest. Now, more jobs require advanced skills and fewer high-paying factory jobs require a little more than a high school diploma. The influx of foreign labour and foreign talent further increase the intense competitiveness in Singapore now, making it more difficult for young people today to find jobs. Foreign talents including expatriates may cause youths, or fresh university graduates to be unable to find jobs, and thus be unable to pay for their university loans, making life tougher today as compared to the past. However, there is a fairer working system today based on meritocracy that gives equal opportunities to females and the minorities. Moreover, the unemployment rate in Singapore has actually decreased to 1.9% in the fourth quarter of 2014 from 2.0% in the third quarter of 2014. The cost of living is lower in the past as compared to the present. Higher costs manifest through GST increase and transport hikes, etc. Young people are also consumers of certain goods and services which have costs increasing over the years like movie ticketsIn the present society, despite material wealth and comfort, children forced to grow up faster due to parental neglect. Family ties were stronger in the past, as there were larger families, and thus more adults to see to the need of the youth. With Singapore’s declining birth rate, people have on the average only one or two children, and single children may feel more lonely and dependent on their  parents. Moreover, with access to social media now, stories of fame and success are all but the same, about money. Young people in the past were contented with the simple pleasures and entertainment in life. Young people today are induced to think that being successful, having money and fame is what matters. They no longer appreciate non-tangible side of success, such as strong familial ties and a good moral upstanding. They have a greater dissatisfaction with life and believe that there is a better way of living, which in turn makes young people today keep their options open in hopes of something better in terms of career choices or personal relationships. 2 Life for young people in sg was not better in the past than it is today (SV) The modernization and growth of Singapore’s economy due to globalisation has enabled people today to bask in material satisfication, comfort, wellness and protection. There are more opportunities open to different sectors of the youth population. (The age of technological dominance. ) Young people have inherited a world that is acutely aware of human rights and equality among people. After the era of colonization, revolutions and 2 world wars, young people today enjoy an unprecedented standard of welfare protection, voting rights and rights to education. There is more gender equality, many women are part of Singapore’s workforce. People today enjoy a cleaner environment and have proper sanitation and enjoy good physical health. Improvements in health standards due to technological advancements in medical science has brought about more comfort which may not have been readily available back in the past. Today, general practioners are located in the hearts of every estate and neighbourhood, providing easy access to medication and consultations. Children today are vaccinated against many diseases which have previously endangered and taken the lives of many children in impoverished states. There is little worry that any ailments or nasty symptoms experienced cannot be treated due to the advanced medical science in Singapore now. There is an undisputable argument that health standards today contributes to better lives for young people. The high standards of living today leads to a lower infant mortality rate, and more young people own branded goods and make use of services of higher quality like eating in restaurants. Many young working adults also own credit cards, making it very easy to spend. They own state-of-the-art gadgets, toys, branded apparel and have domestic helpers to tend to their every beck and  call. There is little need to fear for safety due to the general stability of the country and harmonious society. Young people today enjoy rich and diverse experiences and have many choices and variety in what they do. Technology gives many benefits and comforts, many choices in recreational and entertainment activities such as TV programmes. There are many computer and online games to keep ourselves entertained in the comfort of an air-conditioned room, with fast food and snacks to munch on. Good standard of living, more joy. Though life may appear more stressful now, the range of entertainment and leisure activities that young people can choose to engage in has increased. People are more able and willing to pamper themselves.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

How to Pack a Suitcase

Process Analysis: How to Pack a Suitcase Zakera Marsh Bryant & Stratton College ENG101 Research and Writing 1 Mr. Young March 7, 2013 It’s that time of year again; time to plan a trip, but where to? A mini vacation to the Bahamas for five days via Carnival Cruise will have to do. Just thinking about the process of packing a suitcase is a headache. Packing a suitcase is not so hard, especially when you have the proper steps to complete this task. Packing a suitcase requires one to be organized and prepared. First, it starts off to where you are going; in this case to the warm and beautiful Bahamas.The trip is going to be for five days; five days equals one large sized suitcase. A suitcase is a portable case designed to hold a traveler’s clothing, personal articles, and any other recommendations. Packing accordingly to the weather is important. The things that are need in the suitcase included: five different outfits of choice, three pair of shorts, a two pair of capris, a beach dress, five t-shirts, and maybe a dressy blouse. Also include undergarments, socks, and a few pair of pajamas, possibly a couple different workout clothes like basketball shorts or tights and couple tank tops.Lastly for the outfits includes the shoes, a pair of sneakers, a pair of nice dress shoes, a pair of slippers, and two pairs of flip flops. Also after everything is gathered, an extra outfit should be packed just in case along with undergarments. Now it is time for the essentials. These include: toothpaste, toothbrush, floss, lotion, deodorant, hair products, a brush, a comb, maybe makeup, medicine and vitamins if needed, a camera, money, identification card, and a birth certificate or passport if needed.Other things include: a bathing suit, a light sweater or jacket, and a towel and a washcloth, even though they provide them for you, but I prefer my own. Now that you have everything you need to pack in your suitcase, let’s begin packing! First start by opening u p the suitcase with the zipper provided. Pick up one pair of shoes and place it into any corner of the suitcase. At the same time, take the remaining pair of shoes and make a straight line, putting them towards the opposite corner.Next comes the outfits, take all of the articles of clothing and lay them out flat. Start with the pants, which are the shorts and capris. First bring the lefts of the capris together, fold down the middle seam at the hips with the back pockets together and the front facing out (â€Å"3 Ways to Roll Clothes – wikiHow†, n. d. , p. xx-xx). Next bring the ends of the legs up, fold the capris so that the ends of the legs and top of the pants are even. Roll the capris, starting at the open end and smoothing as you go.Do this to the remanding capris and shorts. Afterward are all of the t-shirts. Make sure they are flat and bring the ends of the sleeves together and fold the shirt in hold down the back. Lay each t-shirt on one, place the arms onto t he body of the folded shirt, keeping them together, and then roll down from the collar (â€Å"3 Ways to Roll Clothes – wikiHow†, n. d. , p. xx-xx). While this is in mind take your dressed, blouse, and undergarments and do the same thing related to the t-shirts. Last but not least are the socks.Place one beneath another with the top one about two inches or five centimeters below the bottom one, roll from the first sock on the bottom, with the first roll coming right to the top of the second sock (â€Å"3 Ways to Roll Clothes – wikiHow†, n. d. , p. xx-xx). This is how you are going to do each pair of your socks. Now that the articles of clothing are all rolled up, take them one by one, preferably starting with the shorts and place them in an open corner on top of each other working your way down as each stack gets higher. Do this with each article of clothing.Yes! The clothing is packed! Unfortunately we are not quite done yet. Next are the toiletries. Take the toothbrush, toothpaste, floss, lotion, and deodorant and place them one by one into a large gallon sized zipped lock baggy close it and place them on top of your clothes. Then get another large sized gallon bag and place your hair products in it, which may include: travel size moisturizer, shampoo, and conditioner and a comb and brush, and any makeup into the other zip lock baggy then close it up and place it next to the first baggy.The camera and medicine or vitamins will go into the middles of your suitcase on top of the clothes. The money, identification card, birth certificate, or passport can go inside of your wallet, purse, or carry-on bag. It is not necessary for these items to go inside of your suitcase because you do not want the hassle of unzipping that large suitcase and rummaging through it for some money and stuff. All of the other things, like a bathing suit can be rolled up like the t-shirt.The sunglasses will go inside of a sunglasses case and be placed inside o ne sneaker which was placed in the corner of the suitcase. Finally, everything is packed, close the suitcase, then zip it up, now it is time for your trip. Packing a suitcase allows you to be more organized and prepared. It entitles you to prepare for a trip; whether it is to the warm and beautiful Bahamas or during winter time in freezing, cold New York City.The process is not rocket science; just gather all of your appropriate attire of the number of days planned, and grab an extra outfit just in case. Make sure you have your shoes and all your personal needs. All of these things will fit, just do not go overboard and bring unnecessary stuff. Then this will make you frustrated if it all cannot fit. Therefore, being prepared and organized before packing a suitcase is important. Reference 3 Ways to Roll Clothes – wikiHow. (n. d. ). wikiHow – How to do anything. Retrieved  March  7, 2013, from http://www. wikihow. com/Roll-Clothes